Heat injury occurs where the body is performing activities or excercises with high intensity in extreme environment. Heatstroke is associated with high morbidity and mortality numbers,particulary if theraphy treatment is delayed.The perceived impact on a person is different,depending on the severity of theexperience. Heat Injury have a significant impact on a person’s physicality that leads to a fatal risk. The body normally generates heat as a result of metabolism, and is usually able to dissipate the heat by radiation of heat through the skin or by evaporation of sweat. However, in extreme heat, high humidity, or vigorous physical exertion under the sun, the body may not be able to sufficiently dissipate the heat and the body temperature rises, sometimes up to 106 F (41.1 C) or higher.
What Is Heatstroke ?
•Heatstroke is the most severe type of heat injury.(JORPRES,2016)
•Heatstroke is a form of hyperthermia in which the body temperature is elevated dramatically.
Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia or heat-related illness, an abnormally elevated body temperature with accompanying physical symptoms including changes in the nervous system function.Heatstroke signs include: (1) rectal temperature above 40,5 C, (2) hypotension,tachycardia,tachypnea, (3) changes in mental status (e.g irritability,ataxia,confusion,disorientation,syncope,hysteria, and coma) , (4) reduced ability to lower body temperature (e.g. stop sweating and skin becoming hot) , (5) signs of a life-threating : disseminated intravascular coagulant or DIC (e.g. epistaxis,bleeding from intravenous line, bruises ,and pulmonary edema) and signs of Acute Renal Failure or ARF (e.g peripheral edema).Symptoms of heat stroke include fatigue,headache,nausea,and vomiting.
Those most susceptible (at risk) individuals to heat stroke include:
•The elderly (often with associated heart diseases, lung diseases, kidney diseases, or who are taking medications that make them vulnerable to dehydration and heat strokes)
•Individuals who work outside and physically exert themselves under the sun
•Infants, children, or pets left in cars.
Risks that are most likely to be exposed to heat injuries those with high-intensity and prologned exercise such as soldiers , athletes , climbers, and hard workers.Heat stroke can also be defined as a form of injury,one of which is called exertional heat stroke. EHS is an increasse in body temperature (hypertermia) >40 C associated with central nervous system disorders and failure of multi-organ systems (Amstrong et al, 2010).
Factors affecting Heatstroke Injury
Factors that affect heatstroke injury in general can be distingusehed on 2 sources,namely from outside or inside.
•External risk Factor (Binkley et al,2002)
1.Dehydration: Dehydration can be identified by monitoring the colour of urine,weight before and after exercise,and the saliva. Symptoms from dehydration is : feeling thirsty,uncomforttable,skin reddening and anxiety . It is very risky if the handling is not appropiate.
2.Obstacle to Evaporation : Equipment made of rubber or plastic used to reduce weight does not make the sweat out so that it inhibits the rate of evaporation,convection and heat dissipation.
3.Sick : Someone who is sick or some time before getting sick tends to increase the risk of heat injury due to fever or dehydration.
•Internal Risk Factor
Environmental factors that affects the risk of heat injury include ambient air temperature,moderate humidity (the amount of air evaporation in air) of air movement, the amount of heat radiation from the sun or other resources.
Prevention Of Heatstroke
Heatstroke is a preventable disease, and through knowledge of the desease can help reduce the mortality of morbidility. To avoid both types of heat stroke, people can acclimate itself to heat , set the schedule of outdoor activities when the air outside cool ,reduce physical activity, drinking a lot water , consume foods containing salt ,and increase the time spent in a place that has air cooler.
Management of heat stroke injuries is by continuosly performing cooling down as quickly as possible while resuscitating patient. Intensive care must be carefully considered to the respiratory tract, reducing body temperature , limiting the production of heat ,optimizing air circulation and monitoring and treating complications.
Jurnal Olahraga Prestasi,Saharun Iso,Ade Tobing,Prodi Ilmu Kedokteran Olahraga, FKUI Jakarta.