POPULASI GULMA AIR DAN NYAMUK Aedes spp. DI ROWO JOMBOR HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN POLA PERSEBARAN PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DI DESA SEKITARNYA

POPULASI GULMA AIR DAN NYAMUK Aedes spp. DI ROWO JOMBOR HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN POLA PERSEBARAN PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DI DESA SEKITARNYA

 Tien Aminatun, Tutiek Rahayu, Victoria Henuhili

 Jurusan Pendidikan Biologi FMIPA UNY

Email: tien_aminatun@uny.ac.id

 

Abstrak

Penelitian yang dilakukan dari bulan Juni-November 2014 ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemelimpahan gulma air di Rowo Jombor, populasi nyamuk Aedes spp. yang berhabitat di perairan tempat tumbuhnya gulma air tersebut, dan pola persebaran penyakit demam berdarah (DB) hubungannya dengan populasi gulma air dan nyamuk Aedes spp. Survai lapangan dilakukan setiap bulan sekali selama dua bulan, meliputi sampling gulma, jentik nyamuk, dan survai kondisi sanitasi lingkungan di dusun-dusun sekitar Rowo Jombor. Analisis data pada penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif dengan melihat hubungan antara data densitas populasi gulma, data densitas populasi nyamuk Aedes, dan data wawancara yang kemudian dibuat pola distribusinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa; (1) Densitas gulma air di Rowo Jombor didominasi oleh  Eichornia crassipes terutama pada lokasi V yang terletak di dekat bendungan outlet sedangkan lokasi III yang terletak di tengah-tengah rawa tidak ditemukan populasi gulma akuatik; (2) Tidak ditemukan populasi jentik nyamuk Aedes spp. yang berhabitat di perairan tempat tumbuhnya gulma air, disebabkan karena banyaknya predator seperti ikan dan larva serangga Gerridae, serta lingkungan abiotik yang kurang mendukung, yaitu suhu udara, kelembaban udara dan turbiditas air ; dan (3) Hasil penelitian ini tidak membuktikan hubungan pola persebaran penyakit demam berdarah dengan populasi gulma akuatik di Rowo Jombor sebagai habitat jentik nyamuk Aedes spp., tetapi dari peta distribusi gulma akuatik dan jentik nyamuk diketahui bahwa lokasi yang berdekatan dengan area rawa dengan populasi gulma air tertinggi mempunyai populasi jentik nyamuk yang tertinggi pula. Sanitasi lingkungan dari aspek pelaksanaan dan kontinyuitas Pemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (PSN) lebih berpengaruh terhadap densitas jentik nyamuk yang ditemukan.

Kata Kunci : Gulma air, Nyamuk Aedes spp, Pola persebaran penyakit demam berdarah (DB), Rowo Jombor

  Abstract

The study which was conducted from June until November 2014 aimed to know the abundance of aquatic weeds in Rowo Jombor,  population of Aedes spp which lived in aquatic weed area, and distribution pattern of dengue fever disease related to population of aquatic weed and Aedes spp.

Field survey was conducted every month in two montsh duration to collect data  of weed population,  mosquito larvae density, and environmental sanitation condition of the villages around The Rowo Jombor. We used quantitative descriptive analysis to see the  relationship among weed density, Aedes spp population, interview result of sanitation condition, and then we used it to make its distribution pattern.The results were; (1) The density of aquatic weeds in Rowo Jombor was dominated by  Eichornia crassipes mainly on Location V which was located near outlet, while the Location III which was located in the center of the swamp was not found aquatic weeds ; ( 2 ) We did not find larvae of Aedes spp population which lived in aquatic weed area, because many predators such as fish and larvae insect of Gerridae, abiotic factor of environment (air temperature and humidity, and water turbidity) which did not support to mosquito life; and (3) Research result could not prove the relationship between the pattern of dengue fever disease distribution and  aquatic weeds in Rowo Jombor as habitat for mosquito larvae of Aedes spp. Sanitation aspects of implementation and continuity of mosquito nest eradication affected the density of mosquito larvae.

 Keywords: aquatic weeds, Aedes spp, pattern of dengue fever disease distribution, Rowo Jombor

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